The Bank is responsible for formulating and implementing a sound monetary policy to achieve financial stability. It is the duty of the Central Bank to achieve and maintain price stability. This is in line with government's aim of achieving sustainable growth. In terms of its monetary policy implementation framework, the Bank uses instruments such as the discount rate, reserve and liquidity requirements, open market operations and moral suasion.
The Bank conducts research on monetary, financial and economic matters and uses this information in policy formulation. The Bank, together with government, is responsible for formulating and monitoring economic policies that are aimed at promoting economic growth, development, and ultimately improving the standard of living of the people of Eswatini.